ENURESIS ENCOPRESIS INFANTIL PDF
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Encopresis, Stool Soiling. ties of urinary incontinence and encopresis in child- some 15 percent of children with nocturnal enuresis Minerva Pediatrica ; Cochat. La encopresis es un problema que provoca un fuerte rechazo en el entorno social y familiar del niño. Socialmente menos aceptada que la enuresis puede.
|Published (Last):||20 January 2006|
|PDF File Size:||19.14 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||11.66 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Nocturnal enuresis usually presents with voiding of a lot urine during sleep in a child in whom it is difficult to awake. It also may be accompanied by bladder dysfunction during the day which is termed non-mono symptomatic enuresis. The symptoms of bladder dysfunction include . Urge incontinence – the presence of an overwhelming urge to urinate, frequent urination, attempts to hold the urine and urinary tract infections.
Encopresis – Wikipedia
Stress incontinence – incontinence that occurs in situations when increased intrabdominal pressure occurs such as coughing. Secondary infantiil usually occurs in the inffantil of a new life event that is stressful such as abuse or parental divorce. After age 5, wetting at night—often called bedwetting or sleepwetting—is more common than daytime wetting in eencopresis. Experts do not know what causes nighttime incontinence. Young people who experience nighttime wetting tend to be physically and emotionally normal.
Most cases probably result from a mix of factors including slower physical development, an overproduction of urine at night, a lack of ability to recognize bladder filling when asleep, and, in some cases, anxiety. For many, there is a strong family history of bedwetting, suggesting an inherited factor. Between the ages of 5 and 10, incontinence may be the result of a small bladder capacity, long sleeping periods, and underdevelopment of the body’s alarms in the brain that signal a full or emptying bladder.
This form of incontinence will fade away as the bladder grows and the natural alarms become operational. Normally, the body produces a hormone that can slow the making of urine.
This hormone is called antidiuretic hormoneor ADH. The body normally produces more ADH during sleep so that the need to urinate is lower.
If the body does not produce enough ADH at night, the making of urine may not be slowed down, leading to bladder overfilling. If a child does not sense the bladder filling and awaken to urinate, then wetting will occur.
Experts suggest that anxiety-causing events occurring in the lives of children ages 2 to 4 might lead to incontinence before the child achieves total bladder control. Anxiety experienced after age 4 might lead to wetting after the child has been dry for a period of 6 months or more.
Such events include angry parents, unfamiliar social situations, and overwhelming family events such as the birth of a brother or sister, or the death of someone very close. Incontinence itself is an anxiety-causing event. Strong bladder contractions leading to leakage in the daytime can enurdsis embarrassment and anxiety that lead to wetting at night. Certain inherited genes appear to contribute to incontinence. Nighttime incontinence may be one sign of another condition called obstructive sleep apnea, in which the child’s breathing is interrupted during sleep, often because of inflamed or enlarged tonsils or adenoids.
Other symptoms of this condition include snoring, mouth breathing, frequent ear and sinus infections, sore throat, choking, and daytime drowsiness.
In some cases, successful treatment of this breathing disorder may also resolve the associated nighttime incontinence. Finally, a small number of cases of incontinence are caused by physical problems in the urinary system in children.
A condition known as urinary reflux or vesicoureteral reflux, in which urine backs up into one or both ureters, can cause urinary tract infections and incontinence. Rarely, a blocked bladder or urethra may cause the bladder to overfill and leak.
Nerve damage associated with the birth defect spina bifida can cause incontinence. An ectopic uretera misplacement of the ureter outside the bladder, can also commonly cause incontinence.
In these cases, the incontinence can appear as a constant dribbling of urine. Daytime incontinence that is not associated with urinary infection or anatomic abnormalities is less common than nighttime incontinence and tends to disappear much earlier than the nighttime versions. One possible cause of daytime incontinence is an overactive bladder. Many children with daytime incontinence have abnormal voiding habits, the most common being infrequent voiding.
This form of incontinence occurs more often in girls than in boys. Muscles surrounding the urethra the tube that takes urine away from the bladder have the job of keeping the passage closed, preventing urine from passing out of the body. If the bladder contracts strongly and without warning, the muscles surrounding the urethra may not be able to keep urine from passing. This often happens as a consequence of urinary tract infection and is more common in girls.
Infrequent voiding refers to a child’s voluntarily holding of urine for prolonged intervals.
For example, a child may not want to use toilets at school or may not want to interrupt enjoyable activities, so he or she ignores the body’s signal of a full bladder.
In these cases, the bladder can overfill and leak ecopresis. Additionally, these children often develop urinary tract infections UTIsleading to an irritable indantil overactive bladder. Some of the same factors that contribute to nighttime incontinence may act together with infrequent voiding to produce infanhil incontinence. These factors include a small bladder capacity, constipation and food containing caffeine, chocolate or artificial coloring.
Sometimes overly strenuous enurdsis training may make the child unable to relax the sphincter and the pelvic floor to completely empty the bladder. Retaining urine incomplete emptying sets the stage for urinary tract infections.
Clinical definition of enuresis is urinary incontinence beyond age of 4 years for daytime and beyond 6 years for nighttime, or loss of continence after three months of dryness. Many children overcome incontinence naturally without treatment as they grow older. The number of cases of incontinence goes down by 15 percent for each year after the age of 5. At night, moisture alarmsalso known as bedwetting alarms, can awaken a person when he or she begins to urinate.
These devices include a water-sensitive sensor that is clipped on the pajamas, encopgesis wire connecting to a battery-driven control, and an alarm that sounds when moisture is first detected.
For the alarm to be effective, the child must awaken or be awakened as soon as the alarm goes off. This may require having another person sleep in the same room to awaken the bedwetter. Bed-wetting alarms have been around sincewhen O.
Mowrer first invented the “bell and pad”. This behavioral training is one of the safest and more effective treatments. Nighttime incontinence may be treated by increasing Encoresis levels. The hormone can be boosted by a synthetic version known as desmopressinor DDAVP, which recently became available in pill form. Patients can also spray a mist containing desmopressin into their nostrils.
Desmopressin is approved for use by children. Another medication, called imipramineis also used to treat encopresiis. It acts on both the brain and the urinary bladder. Unfortunately, total dryness with either of the medications available is achieved in only about 20 percent of patients.
If a young person experiences incontinence resulting from an overactive bladder, a doctor might prescribe a medicine that helps to calm the bladder muscle, such as oxybutynin.
This medicine controls muscle spasms and belongs to a class of medications called anticholinergics. Techniques that may help daytime incontinence include:.
In the United States, approximately 15 to 20 percent of 5 year old children will develop symptoms related to this disorder.
Prevalence changes significantly with age. To be more specific, about 33 percent of 5 year-olds, 25 percent of 7 year olds, 15 percent of 9 year olds, 8 percent of 11 year olds, 4 percent of 13 year-olds, and 3 percent of 15 to 17 year-olds. Numbers show that diurnal enuresis is much less common. Overall, about 60 encopreesis of those suffering are male. Invantil, this too depends on age. From ages 4 to 6, the number of boys and girls is about equal.
However, the ratio changes so that by 11 years of age there are enuersis as many boys as girls. Incidence varies with social class with more incidences among those with low socioeconomic status. No evidence has been found related to ethnic differences. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article with questionable factual accuracy needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the infanhil references if you can.
Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. This article encopresie additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by infanril citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Archived from the original on Essential Pediatrics, 7th Edition. Delirium Post-concussion syndrome Organic brain syndrome.
Psychoactive substances, substance abuse and substance-related disorders. Schizophreniaschizotypal and delusional. Schizoaffective disorder Schizophreniform disorder Brief reactive psychosis. Disorganized hebephrenic schizophrenia Paranoid schizophrenia Simple-type schizophrenia Childhood schizophrenia Pseudoneurotic schizophrenia. Neuroticstress -related and somatoform. Adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Dissociative identity disorder Psychogenic amnesia Fugue state Depersonalization disorder.
Postpartum depression Postpartum psychosis.
Adult personality and behavior. Sexual maturation disorder Ego-dystonic sexual orientation Sexual relationship disorder Paraphilia Voyeurism Fetishism.