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Malformasi Anorektal. Anorectal malformations comprise a wide spectrum of diseases, which can affect boys and girls, and involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the urinary. Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are among the more frequent congenital anomalies encountered in paediatric surgery, with an estimated incidence ranging.

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Based on this evidence, it is likely that the mutation of a variety of different genes can result in ARM, or that the etiology of ARM is multigenic [ 13 ].

In the male, besides the absent anus, a note must be made of the anal pit. A definitive repair in the newborn period avoids a colostomy but there is considerable risk to the urinary tract with this practice because the surgeon does not know the precise anorectal defect. If the common channel is less than 3 cm, the posterior sagittal approach without an abdominal approach can be used to wnorektal the defect.

But it should be noticed that this approach might damage the vesical nerve plexus when the rectourethralfistula is dissected up to its junction with the urethra.

Anorectal malformations

For instance, rectoprostatic aonrektal and bladderneck fistula, both considered as “high” defects are actually very different. Decision-making for female newborns The decisions involved in managing the female newborn are less complicated.

The bowel may traverse the levator and not lay anterior to it. Diagnostic methods The radiologic evaluation of a newborn with imperforate anorfktal includes an abdominal ultrasound to evaluate for urologic anomalies.

Aust N Z J Surg. Traditionally, to evaluate the degree of sacral deficiency, the number of sacral vertebral bodies were counted.


This is a situation equivalent to a perineal colostomy. Levitt MA, Pena A.

It comprised of three distinct elements: Treatment Surgery As discussed previously, the surgeon must decide in the newborn period whether the child requires fecal diversion with a colostomy, or can undergo a primary repair procedure. Historically, a gracilis muscle or gluteus maximus muscle transplant to strengthen the striated anal malformas has been used.

So, the actual impact of tethered cord itself on their functional prognosis is unclear. There has been a paradigm shift in approach to these patients which involves holistic approach to the syndrome of Anorectal malformations with a long term goal of achievement of complete fecal and urinary continence with excellent quality of life.

This anomaly has an excellent prognosis and therefore complications that could affect future continence must be avoided. The sacrum is the most frequently affected bony structure. If the baby growing well, the repair can be performed at 1—2 months of age. The bladder neck in most patients is competent, and these patients that require catheterization remain dry in between. In this case, during the main repair, the surgeon knows that the rectum will be found only through the abdomen, and a combined posterior sagittal and abdominal or laparoscopic approach is employed.

Perineal fistulas in both male and female have traditionally been called malformsi defects. A combination of perineal and abdominal approach was done by Rhoads et al. Advances in the management of anorectal malformations.

Imaging of anorectal malformations in the neonatal period. Loss of the rectal reservoir could lead to a worse problem of incontinence with a patient who now has diarrhea. In particular, mutations in specific genes encoding transcription factors ahorektal been described in patients having Townes-Broks syndrome, Currarino’s syndrome, and Pallister-Hall syndrome, each of which have autosomal dominant modes of inheritance. An abdominal ultrasound determines the presence of an obstructive uropathy as well as the presence of a hydrocolpos.

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Performance of a new pull-through operation should be avoided so that the patient’s rectal reservoir is preserved. The babies are kept in the genupectoral position for 3 min by holding their facedown with hips flexed. Laparoscopy and its use in the repair of anorectal malformations. Anchoring of the sigmoid in the right upper quadrant would interfere with the pull-through procedure. Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Malformasi Anorektal | Lokananta | Jurnal Kedokteran Meditek

Laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull-through for high imperforate anus — A new technique. Or, perhaps it is the hypomotility that causes dilatation, which in malformaasi results in constipation, creating a vicious cycle. This misconception has important therapeutic implications that will be discussed below.

It has become the predominant surgical method for anorectal anomalies. Is surgery necessary for asymptomatic tethered cord in anorectal malformation patients?

Anorectal malformations

The proximal stoma is connected to malformqsi upper gastrointestinal tract and drains stool. The distal stoma, also called a mucous fistula, is connected to the rectum and will drain small amounts of mucus material. These complications may compromise the ultimate functional prognosis.

When a patient with a megasigmoid has been shown to be fecally continent, resection of the sigmoid has been found to dramatically reduce the patient’s laxative requirements.

Predictions of future problems such as amenorrhea in cases of atretic uteri, or hydrometrocolpos and retrograde menses can be made in the newborn period.